fbpx
skip to Main Content
info@gooribi.com Customer Login
24/7/365 Technical Support: 1-480-624-2500
For Sales: 1-571-310-4647 | M-F 10AM to 5PM

Basic Linux Commands

ls – List directory contents

  • Lists files, directories
  • For long output, pipe through more: > ls -l | more

(use q or Ctrl-c to exit)

grep – Find text in a file

  • grep PATTERN [FILE]
  • > grep failed auth.log



cd – Change current directory

  • Nearly identical to Windows command line
  • Forward slashes instead of backward
  • cd <directory>
  • > cd /var/log

shutdown – Shut the system down

  • sudo shutdown 2
  • Shuts down and turns off the computer in two minutes
  • sudo shutdown -r 2
  • Shuts down and reboots in two minutes
  • Ctrl-C to cancel

pwd – Print Working Directory

  • Displays the current working directory path
  • Useful when changing directories often

passwd – Change a user account password

  • passwd

mv – Move (rename) a file

  • mv SOURCE DEST
  • > mv first.txt second.txt

cp – Copy a file

  • cp SOURCE DEST
  • > cp first.txt second.txt



rm – Remove files or directories

  • Does not remove directories by default
  • Directories must be empty or must be removed with -r

mkdir – Make a directory

  • mkdir DIRECTORY
  • > mkdir notes

chmod – Change mode of a file system object

  • r=read, w=write, x=execute
  • Can also use octal notation
  • Set for the file owner (u), the group(g), others(o), or all(a)
  • chmod mode FILE
  • > chmod 744 script.sh

chown – Change file owner and group

  • sudo chown [OWNER:GROUP] file
  • > sudo chown professor script.sh

iwconfig – View or change wireless network configuration

  • Requires some knowledge of the wireless network
  • iwconfig eth0 essid studio-wireless

ifconfig – View or configure a interface and IP configuration

  • ifconfig eth0

ps – View the current processes

  • Similar to the Windows Task Manager
  • View user processes – ps
  • View all processes – ps -e | more



su – Become super user

  • You continue to be that user until you exit

sudo – Execute a command as the super user

  • Only that command executes as the super user

apt-get – Advanced Packaging Tool

  • Handles the management of application packages
  • > sudo apt-get install wireshark

vi – Visual mode editor

  • Full screen editing with copy, paste, and more
  • vi FILE
  • > vi script.sh
  • Insert text – i <text>
  • Exit insert mode with Esc
  • Save (write) the file and quit vi – :wq

dd – Convert and copy a file

  • Backup and restore an entire partition
  • > dd if=<src file name> of=<target file name> [Options]
  • Creating a disk image
  • > dd if=/dev/sda of=/tmp/sda-image.img
  • Restoring from an image
  • > dd if=/tmp/sda-image.img of=/dev/sda


Back To Top